First of all, every 3D rendering has to start off as a 3D model, these are represented by a series of geometrical shapes connected into a three dimensional space. There are different modelling software’s for the desired outcomes, but most software’s use polygonal modelling such as Rhinceros 3D, 3DS Max and Google SketchUp.
Secondly, to give the model any real form, lighting must be introduced. The most basic form of a lighting setup is three point lighting where the method of a lighting uses three distinct light source positions to illuminate the subject or scene. The setup of the lights helps create different moods for the final image, and are usually played and tweaked throughout the process.
At this stage, all the materials of the 3D scene or subject are created. They are created by using multiple different images in layers that create different types of bumps, reflections, roughness and more. The materials have to be tailored to meet the desired results, while working with the lighting created in the previous step to bring out the perfect reflections and shadows to give depth to the image. At the end of this stage the render engine is set off, and the computer creates a raw image.
In addition to the modelling and rendering software’s there are also post production software, such as Photoshop. This is where the images that have been outputted from the render engine are all brought together, layered and tweaked to create the final photo realistic outcome.